After way too many hours of work, I'm excited to share this huge fire and smoke damper cheatsheet that goes through EVERY instance where the 2018 IBC requires a fire and smoke damper due to a wall/floor/ceiling penetration.
In the A/E design community, the term "open stair" is frequently used to describe a stair that is not enclosed with walls, partitions or barriers. While "open stair" is not a term used in the International Building Code, it generally aligns with a stairway (which is a defined term in the IBC) not used for egress purposes or an exit access stairway (also a defined term). The terms "communicating stair" and "convenience stair" are also used in the same line of discussion, though depending on the situation, these could be referring to communicating spaces or convenience openings, both types of vertical openings defined in NFPA 101.
In this post, we'll review the IBC requirements for open stairs and describe several code paths that can be used to provide open stairs in your design. I will use the term "open stair" throughout the post, but remember, since this is not a defined term, any formal documentation on drawings, plans etc. should use the proper nomenclature identified in this overview. This post will be limited to stairs within a building and will not address exterior stairways.
Open Stairs - 2018 IBC Code Paths
Stairway Connecting Levels within a Story
The first and most simple type of open stair connects one or more levels within a single story. This stair could be provided to access a raised floor area or a mezzanine, or to access areas on a story that are at different elevations due to a sloping site.
If the open stair is not used as part of the means of egress, the IBC would view it as simply a "stairway." If it is on the path of egress, it then becomes an exit access stairway. In either case, since this type of stair does not connect multiple stories, there is no code requirement to enclose the stairway or provide a rated separation (IBC 1019.2).
One other important point for this type of open stair is the requirement for accessible means of egress (IBC 1009). An exit access stair connecting levels on the same story is not permitted to be part of an accessible means of egress, unless the stair is providing the means of egress from a mezzanine (IBC 1009.3.1). If you are not sure how to address required vs. accessible means of egress requirements, check out this post for more details.
Stairway Connecting Two Stories
If your open stair does connect two stories, a few additional requirements are triggered. First, IBC 712.1.9 gives a number of requirements for vertical two-story openings. These include:
If your open stair is part of the means of egress (exit access stairway), IBC 1019.3 gives similar requirements. Note that open stairs connecting two stories are not permitted in Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies.
Stairway Connecting Three or More Stories
If your open stair connects three or more stories, the most common approach is to use a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers per IBC 1019.3.4. Use of this provision requires the following:
In Group B and M occupancies, there is no limit to the number of stories that can be connected with this approach. In all other occupancies, this is limited to four connected stories, except Groups I-2 and I-3, where it is not permitted at all.
Open Stairs in Group R Occupancies
In Group R-1, R-2 and R-3 occupancies, open stairs up to four stories are permitted if they are contained within a single dwelling unit, sleeping unit or live/work unit.
Open stairs are also permitted in Group R-3 congregate living facilities and Group R-4 occupancies.
Open Stairs within an Atrium
If located within an atrium, open stairs are permitted with no limit to the number of stories connected. Keep in mind that atriums have a host of additional requirements in the code, such as smoke control and rated separation from other building spaces. Open stairs in an atrium are permitted to serve as exit access stairways, though the travel distance when using such stairs is limited to 200 feet (IBC 404.9.3).
There are a few other situations where the code allows open stairs without any rated enclosure or separation:
There are many cases where the IBC allows open stairs. When open stairs are used as part of the means of egress for a building, they are considered "exit access stairways." Otherwise, they would fall under the "stairway" definition in the code. If your project is required to comply with NFPA 101, be sure to check out Chapter 8, which has more stringent requirements for vertical openings than the IBC.
If you are located in any major city, it’s likely that you can take a short walk down the street and find an instance of two adjacent buildings built up next to each other. If you’re out in the suburbs, you have probably seen this situation in the form of a row of townhouses. In the U.S., and other countries that adopt the International Building Code (IBC), these abutting buildings likely fall into one of the following cases:
In either case, the IBC recognizes three distinct approaches for the wall(s) located between the abutting buildings. All references are to the 2015 IBC.
Walls Between Abutting Buildings
Abutting Exterior Walls
In both cases described above, the IBC allows for two abutting exterior walls to separate the two buildings. Since the two buildings have a zero fire separation distance, IBC 602 requires both walls to have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating for most occupancies (the requirement is higher for Groups M, F-1, S-1 and H). Similarly, IBC 705.8 prohibits openings in either of these walls.
Since both structures are considered separate and distinct buildings, structural independence is required. Both exterior walls are prohibited from bearing on each other, and the walls must be supported and braced by their respective buildings. This strategy is common when the two buildings have tenants or occupants who are unrelated to one another. Since openings between the buildings are not permitted, this approach is not practical when doors between buildings are required.
Once common exception is a concrete parking structure that is surrounded on all sides by a residential building. This type of project, often referred to as a “wrapper building” or “Texas Donut," utilizes a newly-added provision in the 2015 IBC 705.3, which allows protected openings between the buildings, as long as the opening in the parking garage building has a 1.5-hour fire resistance rating. The opening in the residential building does not require an opening protective in this case.
Fire walls are required to be structurally independent from the building and must be continuous to the foundation. For two abutting buildings located on the same lot, this means that neither of the buildings can bear on the fire wall, which often results in the construction of three walls: the fire wall plus a separate exterior wall for each building. Floor assemblies can be connected to the fire wall using breakaway clips for continuity purposes, but they cannot be supported by the fire wall.
While the structural requirements for a fire wall are more restrictive than for exterior walls located near a lot line, fire walls are permitted to have protected openings. The openings in fire wall are limited to 156 SF, unless both buildings on either side of the fire wall are fully sprinkler-protected, in which case there is no limit to the area of openings (IBC 706.8). The required fire resistance rating of a fire wall is dependent on the occupancy classifications involved (IBC Table 706.4).
Beginning in the 2015 IBC, code language was added to allow for compliance with NFPA 221 to satisfy the requirements of IBC 706. NFPA 221 contains provisions to allow double fire walls (two rated walls built next to each other) in lieu of one structurally independent fire wall. As shown in NFPA 221 Table 4.5 (copied below), two walls, each with a 2-hour fire resistance rating are deemed equivalent to a single 3-hour fire wall.
This is similar to the abutting exterior wall strategy described previously, but the required wall rating is increased in order to meet the NFPA 221 requirements. Though this approach involves two separate walls, the entire assembly is considered a fire wall by the IBC. The fire wall strategy is best suited when there is a single owner or tenant in both buildings and openings between the two buildings are necessary.
The final option described in the IBC for the wall between two abutting buildings is a party wall. A party wall is described in the IBC as “Any wall located on a lot line between adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service between the two buildings…” (IBC 706.1.1).
This description indicates that party walls are specific to abutting buildings located on separate lots; a wall between buildings on the same lot would not be considered a party wall. Party walls must meet all of the requirements for fire walls, except that no openings are permitted. Generally, party walls require both owners to agree on how the wall will be used and any future design changes will be handled.
Abutting buildings can be found on the same lot or on two adjacent lots. Architects and engineers can choose between: (1) two abutting exterior walls, (2) a fire wall, or (3) a party wall when designing the wall between the two buildings. How have you approached designs in this situation? Comment and let us know!